ASCII

/as'kee/

[American Standard Code for Information Interchange]

n. The predominant character set encoding of present-day computers.

Uses 7 bits for each character, whereas most earlier codes (including an early version of ASCII) used fewer.

This change allowed the inclusion of lowercase letters --- a major win --- but it did not provide for accented letters or any other letterforms not used in English (such as the German sharp-S and the ae-ligature which is a letter in, for example, Norwegian).

It could be worse, though. It could be much worse.

See EBCDIC to understand how.

Computers are much pickier and less flexible about spelling than humans; thus, hackers need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for them.

Every character has one or more names --- some formal, some concise, some silly. Common jargon names for ASCII characters are collected here.

See also individual entries for bang, excl, open, ques, semi, shriek, splat, twiddle, and Yu-Shiang Whole Fish.

This list derives from revision 2.3 of the USENET ASCII pronunciation guide. Single characters are listed in ASCII order; character pairs are sorted in by first member.

For each character, common names are given in rough order of popularity, followed by names that are reported but rarely seen; official ANSI/CCITT names are surrounded by brokets: <>. Square brackets mark the particularly silly names introduced by INTERCAL. Ordinary parentheticals provide some usage information.

  • !

    Common: bang; pling; excl; shriek; <exclamation mark>.
    Rare: factorial; exclam; smash; cuss; boing; yell; wow; hey; wham; [spark-spot]; soldier.
  • "

    Common: double quote; quote.
    Rare: literal mark; double-glitch; <quotation marks>; <dieresis>; dirk; [rabbit-ears]; double prime.
  • #

    Common: <number sign>; pound; pound sign; hash; sharp; {crunch}; hex; [mesh]; octothorpe.
    Rare: flash; crosshatch; grid; pig-pen; tictactoe; scratchmark; thud; thump; splat.
  • $

    Common: dollar; <dollar sign>.
    Rare: currency symbol; buck; cash; string (from BASIC); escape (when used as the echo of ASCII ESC); ding; cache; [big money].
  • %

    Common: percent; <percent sign>; mod; grapes.
    Rare: [double-oh-seven].
  • &

    Common: <ampersand>; amper; and.
    Rare: address (from C); reference (from C++); andpersand; bitand; background (from 'sh(1)'); pretzel; amp. [INTERCAL called this 'ampersand'; what could be sillier?]
  • '

    Common: single quote; quote; <apostrophe>.
    Rare: prime; glitch; tick; irk; pop; [spark]; <closing single quotation mark>; <acute accent>.
  • ( )

    Common: left/right paren; left/right parenthesis; left/right; paren/thesis; open/close paren; open/close; open/close parenthesis; left/right banana.
    Rare: so/al-ready; lparen/rparen; <opening/closing parenthesis>; open/close round bracket, parenthisey/unparenthisey; [wax/wane]; left/right ear.
  • *

    Common: star; [splat]; <asterisk>.
    Rare: wildcard; gear; dingle; mult; spider; aster; times; twinkle; glob (see glob); Nathan Hale.
  • +

    Common: <plus>; add.
    Rare: cross; [intersection].
  • ,

    Common: <comma>.
    Rare: <cedilla>; [tail].
  • -

    Common: dash; <hyphen>; <minus>.
    Rare: [worm]; option; dak; bithorpe.
  • .

    Common: dot; point; <period>; <decimal point>.
    Rare: radix point; full stop; [spot].
  • /

    Common: slash; stroke; <slant>; forward slash.
    Rare: diagonal; solidus; over; slak; virgule; [slat].
  • :

    Common: <colon>.
    Rare: dots; [two-spot].
  • ;

    Common: <semicolon>; semi.
    Rare: weenie; [hybrid], pit-thwong.
  • < >

    Common: <less/greater than>; left/right angle bracket; bra/ket; left/right braket.
    Rare: from/into, towards; read from/write to; suck/blow; comes-from/gozinta; in/out; crunch/zap (all from UNIX); [angle/right angle].
  • =

    Common: <equals>; gets; takes.
    Rare: quadrathorpe; [half-mesh].
  • ?

    Common: query; <question mark>; ques.
    Rare: whatmark; [what]; wildchar; huh; hook; buttonhook; hunchback.
  • @

    Common: at sign; at; strudel.
    Rare: each; vortex; whorl; [whirlpool]; cyclone; snail; ape; cat; rose; cabbage; <commercial at>.
  • V

    Rare: [book].
  • [ ]

    Common: left/right square bracket; <opening/closing bracket>; bracket/unbracket; left/right bracket.
    Rare: square/unsquare; [U turn/U turn back].
  • \

    Common: backslash; escape (from C/UNIX); reverse slash; slosh; backslant; backwhack.
    Rare: bash; <reverse slant>; reversed virgule; [backslat].
  • ^

    Common: hat; control; uparrow; caret; <circumflex>.
    Rare: chevron; [shark (or shark-fin)]; to the ('to the power of'); fang; pointer (in Pascal).
  • _

    Common: <underline>; underscore; underbar; under.
    Rare: score; backarrow; [flatworm].
  • `

    Common: backquote; left quote; left single quote; open quote; <grave accent>; grave.
    Rare: backprime; [backspark]; unapostrophe; birk; blugle; back tick; back glitch; push; <opening single quotation mark>; quasiquote.
  • { }

    Common: open/close brace; left/right brace; left/right squiggly; left/right squiggly bracket/brace; left/right curly bracket/brace; <opening/closing brace>.
    Rare: brace/unbrace; curly/uncurly; leftit/rytit; left/right squirrelly; [embrace/bracelet].
  • |

    Common: bar; or; or-bar; v-bar; pipe; vertical bar.
    Rare: <vertical line>; gozinta; thru; pipesinta (last three from UNIX); [spike].
  • ~

    Common: <tilde>; squiggle; twiddle; not.
    Rare: approx; wiggle; swung dash; enyay; [sqiggle (sic)].

The pronunciation of '#' as 'pound' is common in the U.S. but a bad idea; Commonwealth Hackish has its own, rather more apposite use of 'pound sign' (confusingly, on British keyboards the pound graphic happens to replace '#'; thus Britishers sometimes call '#' on a U.S.-ASCII keyboard 'pound', compounding the American error). The U.S. usage derives from an old-fashioned commercial practice of using a '#' suffix to tag pound weights on bills of lading. The character is usually pronounced 'hash' outside the U.S.

The 'uparrow' name for circumflex and 'leftarrow' name for underline are historical relics from archaic ASCII (the 1963 version), which had these graphics in those character positions rather than the modern punctuation characters.

The 'swung dash' or 'approximation' sign is not quite the same as tilde in typeset material but the ASCII tilde serves for both (compare angle brackets).

Some other common usages cause odd overlaps. The '#', '$', '>', and '&' characters, for example, are all pronounced "hex" in different communities because various assemblers use them as a prefix tag for hexadecimal constants (in particular, '#' in many assembler-programming cultures, '$' in the 6502 world, '>' at Texas Instruments, and '&' on the BBC Micro, Sinclair, and some Z80 machines).

See also splat.

The inability of ASCII text to correctly represent any of the world's other major languages makes the designers' choice of 7 bits look more and more like a serious misfeature as the use of international networks continues to increase (see software rot). Hardware and software from the U.S. still tends to embody the assumption that ASCII is the universal character set; this is a major irritant to people who want to use a character set suited to their own languages. Perversely, though, efforts to solve this problem by proliferating 'national' character sets produce an evolutionary pressure to use a *smaller* subset common to all those in use.